Il Pluricentrismo del Tedesco in 7 Regole Grammaticali

pluricentrismo
A partire dal 1995, il tedesco viene considerato una lingua pluricentrica. Scopri qui le 7 regole grammaticali che dimostrano il pluricentrismo del tedesco.
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Sei in vacanza in Austria, Germania o Svizzera e hai notato che vengono utilizzate delle regole grammaticali diverse da quelle che trovi sui libri di tedesco? Non preoccuparti, è una cosa normale, soprattutto se sei all’inizio del tuo studio. Perché?

Nell’articolo Dove si parla la lingua tedesca? abbiamo visto che il tedesco – così come l’inglese, il francese, lo spagnolo o altre lingue, è una lingua pluricentrica. Ciò significa quindi, che il tedesco parlato in Germania è diverso da quello in Austria e in Svizzera.

In questo articolo entrerò più nel dettaglio pratico e ti dimostrerò l’esistenza del pluricentrismo del tedesco.

Sei pronto? Si parte!

Il pluricentrismo del tedesco in 7 regole grammaticali: video

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Il pluricentrismo del tedesco in 7 regole grammaticali: quali sono?

L’ortografia

Disclaimer: Soprattutto se sei un linguista, saprai bene che l’ortografia, ovvero la corretta scrittura delle parole, non ha nulla a che vedere con la grammatica vera e propria.

I libri per chi vuole imparare il tedesco non fanno però questa distinzione. Per questo, nel presente articolo parlerò dell’ortografia insieme alle regole grammaticali vere e proprie.

Al giorno d’oggi le differenze ortografiche tra le diverse varietà di tedesco sono quasi sparite.

Tuttaviac’è comunque una regola che distingue il tedesco standard svizzero da quello austriaco e da quello in Germania.

Quale? La famosa Ess-Zet (ß)!

Come mai? Perché i linguisti svizzeri hanno deciso che – scrivendo al computer – fosse più facile e sicuro scrivere la doppia ss. Infatti, il computer considera la ß un carattere speciale.

Per tale motivo, quindi, se vedete un testo in cui la ß non è assolutamente presente potrete essere sicuri che l’autore è di origine svizzera.

 

Il Perfekt

Sono andato, ho bevuto, ho dormito, ecc. Questi sono (secondo la grammatica italiana) esempi di passato prossimo. In tedesco, il passato prossimo si chiama Perfekt.

Come fai a sapere se un verbo è utilizzato al Perfekt? Semplice. Il Perfekt è formato da due parti: il verbo essere o avere (sein oder haben) coniugato al presente indicativo e il participio passato del verbo principale.

Es. Ich habe geschlafen → Ho dormito

Ich bin eingeschlafen → Mi sono addormentato.

Nei Paesi di lingua tedesca, non tutti i verbi sono coniugati al Perfekt nello stesso modo.

Perché? Facciamo l’esempio del Perfekt di verbi come:

baumeln, hängen (quando usato come verbo intransitivo), hocken, liegen, kauern, knien, sitzen, schweben, stehen, stecken (in senso intransitivo).

Che cosa significano i verbi qui sopra? Eccoti qui la traduzione: “ciondolare”, “appendere”, “stare seduto”, “stendersi”, “stare accovacciato”, “inginocchiarsi”, “sedersi”, “pendere”, “stare in piedi” ed “essere conficcato”.

In Germania, il Perfekt dei suddetti verbi è Ich habe gebaumelt, gehangen, gehocken, gelegen, …

In Austria e in Svizzera, invece, sono utilizzati sempre con il verbo essere. Vedi Ammon et al. (2016:LXXV) e https://www.duden.de/sprachwissen/sprachratgeber/Perfektbildung-mit-haben-oder-sein

 

L’utilizzo di am come abbreviazione di auf dem anziché di an dem

Un’altra regola che dimostra il pluricentrismo del tedesco è l’utilizzo di alcune preposizioni come per esempio an.

Tale preposizione può essere utilizzata sia con il dativo (il complemento di termine in italiano, es. A te) sia con l’accusativo (il complemento oggetto in italiano) e ha diversi significati.

An può infatti essere utilizzata con i giorni della settimana (es. Am Dienstag, it. “di martedì”) oppure con i luoghi (es. Am Marktplatz, it. “sulla piazza del mercato”).

In Austria, am non è soltanto l’abbreviazione di “an dem” ma anche di “auf dem” (it. “sul”).

Pertanto, frasi come Die Bücher stehen am Tisch (it. “i libri si trovano sul tavolo”) sono tipicamente austriache. Perché? Perché un tedesco generalmente direbbe Stelle die Bücher auf dem Tisch.

 

Il diminutivo dei sostantivi con -li o -erl al posto di -chen e -lein

Spieglein, Spieglein an der Wand, wer ist die Schönste im ganzen Land?”

Da antwortete der Spiegel:

“Frau Königin, Ihr seid die Schönste hier,

aber Schneewittchen über den Bergen

bei den sieben Zwergen

ist noch tausendmal schöner als Ihr!”

Jakob und Wilhelm Grimm, “Schneewittchen”. In: Kinder- und Hausmärchen 1857.

Soprattutto nelle fiabe e nella comunicazione familiare, il diminutivo è molto importante. Perché? Perché indica una relazione “affettiva” tra il parlante e l’oggetto in questione.

Pertanto, se diciamo per es. “cagnaccio” stiamo valutando in modo spregiativo un cane, mentre se diciamo “casina” o “casetta” stiamo esprimendo apprezzamento verso una casa piccola.

I libri spesso insegnano che il diminutivo in tedesco si forma aggiungendo -chen o -lein ad un nome. In realtà, però, come in italiano esistono anche altre forme.

Quali? I suffissi -li, -erl, -el e -le in parole come Kasperl, Kasperli o Kasperle, che sono utilizzati rispettivamente nel sud della Germania, in Austria e in Svizzera.

Ammon et al. (2016:LXXVI) [libro dal quale sono presi gli esempi citati in questo paragrafo, ndr.] riporta poi altre particolarità. Per esempio, esistono forme che sembrano regionali, ma che in realtà si sono lessicalizzate (ovvero entrate nel dizionario, es. fiorino in italiano).

Esse sono quindi entrate a far parte della lingua standard. Quali sono? Zuckerl, Weggli, Spätzle, Bünzli, ecc.

Una persona che utilizza i diminutivi in “-li” dimostra quindi la sua origine svizzera, mentre chi utilizza la forma del diminutivo in “-erl” è sicuramente di origine bavarese o austriaca.

 

Il plurale dei sostantivi

Studiando tedesco avrai avuto modo di scoprire che non è facile sapere con precisione il plurale di un sostantivo. Pertanto, soprattutto all’inizio, è bene studiare i nomi con il loro articolo e il loro plurale.

Nel presente articolo non voglio soffermarmi troppo sulla formazione del plurale dei sostantivi in tedesco. In fondo, non è il tema del presente articolo.

Nonostante ciò, però, anche i plurali sono utilizzati in modo diverso. E quindi anche il plurale è un elemento grammaticale che dimostra il pluricentrismo del tedesco.

Infatti, in Austria e in Svizzera ci sono più forme plurali con l’Umlaut rispetto alla Germania. Fonte: Ammon u.a. (2016:LXXIV).

Pertanto, come riportato da Ammon, in Svizzera il plurale di Park diventa Pärke (D, AT: Parks), mentre in Austria, in Svizzera e nella Germania meridionale il plurale di Kragen (it. “colletto”) diventa Krägen.

 

Il genere dei sostantivi

Così come il plurale dei sostantivi, anche il loro genere grammaticale può variare. E quindi, anche il modo in cui sono utilizzati gli articoli determinativi (il, lo, la, i, gli, le in italiano) e indeterminativi (un, uno, una sempre in italiano) cambia. Tale variazione è quindi un elemento che dimostra il pluricentrismo del tedesco.

Passiamo però ora a degli esempi pratici.

Come riporta Ammon u.a. (2016:LXXIV),in generale la parola Bikini è maschile (e quindi si dirà der Bikini). Tuttavia, in Svizzera, Bikini può anche essere neutro e quindi prendere l’articolo das.

Lo stesso discorso vale per la parola Pyjama. In generale è maschile, ma in Svizzera può essere anche neutro.”

Infine, sempre come riporta Ammon, in Austria la parola Spachtel (it. “spatola”) è femminile, mentre invece in Germania e in Svizzera è maschile. Pertanto, chi utilizza l’articolo die al posto di der seguito da Spachtel dimostra la propria origine austriaca.

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