Flitzen Sie in mein Büro! Ecco la mia opinione sul tedesco insegnato nei libri per stranieri

flitzen
Esiste davvero un tedesco standard unitario? Perché insegnare le varianti nazionali agli apprendenti stranieri? I libri attuali aiutano davvero a imparare il tedesco? Scoprilo nel seguente articolo!
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14. 06.2020. Avevo pubblicato da poco il mio articolo “Ich bin ein Berliner”: La lingua tedesca in Germania e i teutonismi: guida per principianti, quando in privato ricevo il seguente messaggio:

[…] nella maggior parte dei casi qui son persone che hanno bisogno di un metodo diretto ed efficace per imparare la lingua. Parlare di austriaco, svizzero che sono solo delle varianti dialettali a chi può interessare?

Nel seguente articolo voglio quindi rispondere a questa domanda e a tutte quelle obiezioni che vengono poste per screditare la necessità di insegnare le varianti nazionali del tedesco agli studenti stranieri.

In questo articolo troverai quindi i seguenti argomenti:

  1. Perché insegnare le varianti nazionali del tedesco?
  2. Esiste davvero un tedesco standard unitario?
  3. I libri per apprendenti sono davvero utili per insegnare il tedesco così come viene parlato?

Sei pronto? Si parte!

 

Perché insegnare le varianti nazionali del tedesco?

Per rispondere a questa domanda vorrei qui raccontare la mia esperienza diretta.

Era il febbraio 2014 e avevo appena finito la laurea magistrale di tedesco presso l’Università di Torino. Quando sono arrivata, quindi, sapevo bene la lingua. E siccome la mia tesi di laurea era sulle varianti del tedesco, ne conoscevo già alcune.

Allora lavoravo in un’azienda che vende casalinghi online. E spesso mi sono dovuta confrontare con varianti che non conoscevo. I testi che traducevo non rispondevano sempre ai canoni del tedesco standard. E il linguaggio colloquiale dei miei capi e dei miei colleghi mi ha creato problemi.

Un giorno, il mio capo entra nel mio ufficio e mi dice:  Frau Scanavino, flitzen Sie in mein Büro! Se non fosse che qualche giorno prima avevo trovato la parola flitzen in un testo che stavo traducendo, la mia reazione sarebbe stata: Ähm?

In una situazione del genere, quindi, sentirsi un marziano è il minimo che possa succedere.

A questo punto vengono spontanee alcune riflessioni. Quali?

  1. I libri di tedesco attuali non ti insegnano come si parla DAVVERO il tedesco;
  2. Senza conoscere le varianti del tedesco ti sentirai sempre un marziano;
  3. Non esiste un tedesco standard che sia unitario.

Nonostante ciò, trovi persone che ti vengono a dire che:

  1. Il tedesco austriaco non esiste;
  2. Il tedesco in Austria e in Svizzera sono solo “dialetti” del tedesco;
  3. Siccome sono solo “dialetti”, non vale la pena “perderci tempo”;
  4. A nessuno verrebbe in testa di usare una variante diversa da quella propria.

In tutto ciò, chi si schiera contro l’insegnamento delle varianti agli apprendenti stranieri non si rende conto che:

  1. Soprattutto in Germania, le varianti sono utilizzate in modo non consapevole;
  2. In Svizzera la gente parla il proprio dialetto anche in situazioni formali;
  3. In Austria il tedesco è lingua ufficiale. E già questo è un argomento A FAVORE del fatto che anche l’Austria abbia un suo tedesco standard;
  4. Sul lavoro, i capi e i colleghi NON parleranno il tedesco così come si è abituati ad imparare nei libri;
  5. NESSUNO dice che bisogna saper utilizzare le varianti in modo attivo. Ma è invece necessario conoscerle per saperle riconoscere se si incontra qualcuno che le utilizza.
  6. A livello linguistico non è nemmeno chiaro cosa sia da considerare “standard” e cosa sia invece “dialetto”.
 

Infine pensiamo all’inglese, che viene parlato in tantissimi Paesi in tutto il mondo. In questo caso a nessuno viene in mente di dire che l’inglese americano o australiano siano dialetti dell’inglese. Perché quindi ostinarsi a dire che in Austria o Svizzera si parlino solamente dei dialetti, quando in entrambi questi Paesi il tedesco è una lingua ufficiale?!

 

Esiste davvero un tedesco standard unitario?

A questo punto, però viene da chiedersi: che cos’è la “lingua standard”? E che cos’è un “dialetto”?

Senza scadere in tecnicismi che interesserebbero pochi, possiamo rispondere come segue. La lingua standard è una lingua che per motivi politici, economici, demografici e geografici è riuscita a imporsi sulle altre lingue. E quindi, la lingua standard è quella che:

  1. Si trova nei dizionari e nelle grammatiche;
  2. Viene utilizzata in tutte le situazioni, sia formali sia informali.
 

E poi c’è un’ultima caratteristica importante della lingua standard. Quale?

Chi non si adegua allo standard, viene corretto dagli altri parlanti.

Nel caso dei dialetti, invece, non avviene nessuna correzione. E spesso i dialetti non sono utilizzati nelle situazioni formali.

 

E che cosa sono le varianti? E le varietà?

Le varianti sono le singole parole (es. Aprikose, Apfelsine, …). Mentre le varietà sono in sostanza quelli che comunemente si chiamano “registri linguistici”. Se ti interessa l’argomento, ti consiglio di leggere anche questo articolo: Le lingue pluricentriche e il marketing (digitale): come scalare il ranking di Google e come aumentare la revenue in mercati internazionali.

 

 

Chiarito questo, resta però la domanda: esiste davvero un tedesco standard unitario?

La risposta è a mio avviso: NO. Perché? Molto semplice: il confine tra standard e nonstandard è molto labile. E molto dipende anche dalle singole persone.

 

Vuoi un esempio? Prendiamo la declinazione del sostantivo Bär, ovvero ‘orso’. Secondo il Duden, al dativo e al genitivo la forma corretta sarebbe dem Bären e des Bären. Tuttavia, ci sono alcuni linguisti tedeschi che considerano corrette anche le forme dem Bär e des Bärs, che sono rifiutate dal Duden.

 

Ma questo non è tutto. Infatti, ci sono forme che nel sud della Germania sono considerate standard, mentre al nord sono considerate come dialettali. Vuoi degli esempi? Leggiti allora anche l’articolo Il pluricentrismo del tedesco in 7 regole grammaticali.

E poi, detto onestamente… Ma perché voler a tutti i costi semplificare ciò che non è semplificabile?!

 

 

I libri per apprendenti sono davvero utili per insegnare il tedesco così come viene davvero parlato?

Visto perché, secondo me, non esiste un tedesco standard unitario, rispondiamo quindi alla seguente domanda:

i libri per apprendenti sono davvero utili per insegnare il tedesco così come viene davvero parlato?

Qualcuno infatti potrebbe obiettare che si possa dare per scontato che “studiando il tedesco potrò parlarlo (e capirlo) in Germania, in Austria, in Lussemburgo, in Belgio, in Svizzera ecc.”. In realtà però – allo stato attuale – i libri per apprendenti non aiutano a imparare il tedesco così come viene parlato.

 

E ciò non solo l’ho toccato con mano durante la mia esperienza lavorativa in Germania. Infatti, durante il mio dottorato con il prof. Ulrich Ammon, ho avuto anche modo di analizzare 10 libri per stranieri. I libri in questione sono quelli utilizzati nelle università italiane. Alcuni erano in italiano e altri tutto in tedesco.

 

Nella mia analisi, svolta con la seconda edizione del Variantenwörterbuch des Deutschen di Ulrich Ammon, mi sono concentrata in particolare sul vocabolario presentato.

 

Vuoi sapere il risultato? Nessuno dei libri da me analizzati presenta le varianti del tedesco in modo adeguato.

 

Perché? O si limita il tutto ad argomenti stereotipati, come nel caso dei saluti. Oppure le varianti sono presentate in modo sbilanciato. Cioè? Se gli autori erano di origine svizzera, i libri presentavano quasi solo le varianti svizzere. Mentre se erano tedeschi, nel libro trovavi solo teutonismi.

 

Inoltre, come mi spiegava il prof. Elmar Schafroth, nella fase di redazione dei libri per apprendenti c’è una selezione molto stringente. E questo sia per i materiali sia per le persone che vengono assunte per i vari esercizi di ascolto.

 

E quindi, secondo quanto riportato dal prof. Schafroth, i tedeschi meridionali vengono scartati a favore dei settentrionali.

Il motivo? Perché le case editrici considerano il tedesco della Germania settentrionale come una lingua ideale. E quindi sarebbe più semplice da capire rispetto a quello di una persona proveniente per es. da Monaco di Baviera.

 

Tutto ciò ha sicuramente una motivazione storica. La lingua tedesca è infatti nata intorno al V secolo d.C. nel sud della Germania. Da lì poi si è diffusa anche al nord grazie soprattutto alla traduzione della Bibbia di Lutero.

 

Al nord, quindi, il tedesco potrebbe sembrare più comprensibile. E questo perché, per i motivi storici sopra elencati, la gente è più abituata a separare lo standard dal dialetto.

 

Ma presentare in un libro per apprendenti stranieri una lingua estremamente orientata al nord della Germania, a mio avviso non aiuta nessuno.

Infatti, il voler a tutti i costi presentare una lingua semplificata, porta a mio avviso alle seguenti conseguenze:

  1. Nel momento in cui l’apprendente si trova (in sede di esame o nel momento in cui si trasferisce) un parlante di madrelingua tedesca che parla in modo diverso a come è abituato, non capirà nulla;
  2. Si farà sentire lo studente come uno stupido perché non capisce quello che gli viene detto
  3. Si faranno percepire tutte quelle persone che non parlano secondo i canoni di quello che viene considerato standard come degli zoticoni che non conoscono la grammatica;
  4. Non riuscendo a capire cosa i colleghi o i capi dicono, la persona in questione non riuscirà mai a sentirsi integrata né sul posto di lavoro né nel posto in cui vive.
 

E quindi? Quindi, a mio avviso, l’unica cosa che serve davvero per imparare il tedesco così come viene REALMENTE parlato è quella di prendere testi autentici, ovvero articoli di giornali oppure spezzoni di trasmissioni televisive andate in onda in Germania, Austria, Svizzera o altri Paesi in cui si parla tedesco.

 

Conclusione

Nel seguente articolo abbiamo visto i motivi per cui è importante studiare le varianti del tedesco. Inoltre, abbiamo visto perché – a mio avviso – non è possibile presentare il tedesco standard come se fosse una lingua unitaria.

Infine, nell’ultimo paragrafo, abbiamo visto se e perché i libri per apprendenti sono davvero utili per imparare il tedesco così come viene realmente parlato.

Ti interessa studiare tedesco? Offro delle lezioni INDIVIDUALI e PERSONALIZZATE da svolgersi completamente su Skype. Qui trovi il link con tutte le informazioni in merito: https://www.chiarascanavino.it/lezioni-di-tedesco-su-skype

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135 commenti su “Flitzen Sie in mein Büro! Ecco la mia opinione sul tedesco insegnato nei libri per stranieri”

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