“Ich bin ein Berliner” La lingua tedesca in Germania e i teutonismi: guida per principianti

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Bonn, 02.06.2020

Ich bin ein Berliner. Questa è la celebre frase pronunciata dal presidente americano J.F. Kennedy quando, il 26 giugno 1963, ha fatto visita a Berlino ovest.

Attraverso questa frase, Kennedy voleva dimostrare la sua vicinanza agli abitanti di Berlino, che si ritrovavano a vivere in una città divisa in due dalla cosiddetta “cortina di ferro”.

Pochi sanno però che questa frase ha un doppio senso. Infatti, in Germania, Berliner non sono solamente gli abitanti di Berlino. Come mai? In Germania, Berliner sono anche quei dolci che nel sud della Germania e in Italia vengono chiamati “krapfen”.

La celebre frase di Kennedy era quindi un buon modo per incominciare questo articolo, in cui parliamo dei teutonismi, cioè di quelle parole tipicamente tedesche. 

Anche se un po’ in ritardo, oggi vorrei commemorare il relatore della mia tesi di dottorato, prof. Dr. Ulrich Ammon, scomparso il 3 maggio 2019 all’età di 76 anni. 

Nel suo settore era noto per gli studi sul pluricentrismo del tedesco. E io ho avuto l’occasione di conoscerlo personalmente durante il mio soggiorno erasmus a Düsseldorf. 

In quel periodo, infatti, io scrivevo la mia tesi di laurea in tedesco sul modo in cui i teutonismi, ovvero quelle parole tipicamente tedesche, vengono presentate nei dizionari per apprendenti. 

Ehm, cioè? Sicuramente, se hai studiato un po’ di inglese conoscerai l’Oxford Advanced Dictionary of English (OALD). Ecco. Io nella mia tesi (che poi è stata pubblicata presso una delle migliori case editrici tedesche del mio settore) mi occupavo esattamente di quel tipo di dizionari.

P.S. Non sai cosa sia il pluricentrismo? A tal proposito ti consiglio di leggere gli articoli Dove si parla la lingua tedesca?, Le lingue pluricentriche e il marketing digitale: come scalare il ranking di Google e come aumentare la revenue in mercati internazionali e Il pluricentrismo del tedesco in 7 regole grammaticali

E se conosci bene il tedesco ti consiglio di leggere anche la mia tesi di laurea,  Deutschlandismen in den Lernerwörterbüchern

Sul tema però la bibliografia è piuttosto vasta: basti infatti pensare che – dal 1995 (anno in cui è stato pubblicato il suo libro più famoso presso la casa editrice De Gruyter) al 2019 – di Ammon ci sono centinaia di studi sul pluricentrismo del tedesco. 

A questi si aggiungono poi quelli di altri studiosi, come per esempio Michael Clyne o Rudolf Muhr. Se sei interessato al tema, puoi scrivermi e ti darò tutte le indicazioni bibliografiche del caso.

 

Che cosa sono i teutonismi? Quali parole possono essere definite teutonismi? E perché dovrei conoscere i teutonismi se voglio trasferirmi in Germania?, ti chiederai.

Bene. Ho una buona notizia per te. Se continuerai a leggermi, avrai la risposta a tutte queste domande.

 

Sei pronto? Si parte!

 

Perché è importante conoscere i teutonismi?

Prima di addentrarci nel tema del seguente articolo e spiegarti che cosa sono i teutonismi, vorrei qui spiegarti il motivo per cui è importante conoscere i teutonismi e quindi leggere questo mio post.

Con questa nota abbiamo quindi il primo motivo per cui dovresti conoscere i teutonismi. Ovvero: conoscere quali sono quei termini tipicamente tedeschi ti permetterà di capire meglio i nativi, che spesso li usano in modo inconsapevole e creano problemi sia agli stranieri sia a chi proviene da Austria e Svizzera.

Devi infatti sapere che spesso i tedeschi sono convinti che la loro lingua sia universale, perché è quella parlata dalla maggioranza dei parlanti nativi. Effettivamente, già solo in Germania vivono 81 milioni di persone, ovvero oltre 4 volte gli abitanti di Austria (ca. 9 milioni) e di Svizzera (ca. 8,5 milioni), vedi Statistik Austria e Bundesamt für Statistik. Ma la lingua tedesca parlata nella Bundesrepublik ha comunque le sue specificità. E quindi non può essere considerata “universale”.

Conoscere i teutonismi ti aiuta a integrarti in Germania, evitando di relegarti in un ghetto. Inoltre, puoi anche capire meglio la cultura dei tedeschi.

 

Ma – a seconda del lavoro che fai – conoscere i teutonismi è importante anche se rimani in Italia. Penso infatti non solo a un traduttore che traduce un libro o un sito web in italiano e deve fare da intermediario tra la cultura tedesca e quella italiana. Infatti, anche e soprattutto un copywriter o un qualsiasi altro esperto di marketing che vuole avere successo in Germania o in altri Paesi di lingua tedesca deve conoscere i teutonismi.

 

Come mai? Facciamo un esempio sull’italiano. Quest’ultimo viene parlato ufficialmente non solo in Italia, ma anche in Svizzera. Per questo, alcuni studiosi come Rudolf Muhr considerano l’italiano una lingua pluricentrica.

Al di là della definizione teorica di lingua pluricentrica, che puoi leggere tranquillamente qui. Secondo te, detto onestamente… può avere successo in Italia una landing page o una pubblicità piena di termini usati solamente in Svizzera?!

La risposta è NO. Infatti, la gente non capirebbe, considererebbe il tuo testo pieno di errori (anche se tali non sono) e quindi non prenderebbe sul serio l’azienda che sta dietro quella landing page o quella pubblicità. E questo vorrebbe dire perdere soldi e reputazione.

 

La stessa cosa avviene se anziché occuparci della lingua italiana ci occupassimo della lingua tedesca.

 

Pertanto, per tutti i motivi qui sopra elencati sono convinta che sia necessario conoscere i teutonismi. Quando dico che devi conoscere i teutonismi NON intendo che tu debba saperli utilizzare quando parli con qualcuno. Ma se hai una conversazione con chi parla tedesco da madrelingua devi essere in grado di riconoscerli e di comprendere il loro significato, se questa persona li sta usando.

 

Che cosa sono i teutonismi?

Bene. Ora che ho descritto perché dovresti conoscere i teutonismi, entriamo nel merito di questo articolo rispondendo alla domanda:

Che cosa sono i teutonismi?

Ecco quindi qui la definizione di questo termine…

I teutonismi sono quelle parole della lingua tedesca che sono utilizzate solamente in Germania. E quindi si distinguono dagli elvetismi (= quelle parole che vengono utilizzate soltanto in Svizzera) e dagli austriacismi (= le parole usate esclusivamente in Austria).

 

Come dicevo però nel precedente paragrafo, i tedeschi utilizzano i teutonismi in modo inconsapevole. Come mai? Secondo studiosi come Peter von Polenz, ciò ha una motivazione storica. Infatti, fino alla Seconda Guerra Mondiale, la Germania si estendeva lungo il cosiddetto “corridoio di Danzica” e arrivava fino a Königsberg (oggi Kaliningrad, Russia) e la lingua tedesca standard utilizzata in quel periodo veniva definito Reichsdeutsch.

A partire dal 1945, però, il termine Reichsdeutsch non poteva più essere utilizzato, perché non rispecchiava più la nuova situazione politica. E quindi gli studiosi hanno cercato delle denominazioni che fossero più adatte. Tra questi c’era anche il termine Binnendeutsch, che non aiutava i tedeschi a capire che anche loro avevano una propria lingua standard diversa da quella di Austria e Svizzera.

È quindi per questo motivo che i tedeschi (al contrario degli austriaci e degli svizzeri) non sono consapevoli dell’esistenza di una varietà propria della lingua tedesca.

 

Quali parole possono essere definite teutonismi?

A questo punto, probabilmente ti starai chiedendo: Chiara, ma in pratica… quali parole possono essere definite teutonismi?

In realtà, però, prima di citare alcune parole in particolare è qui necessario rispondere alla domanda: con quali criteri si possono riconoscere i teutonismi?

A questa domanda, Ulrich Ammon rispondeva che occorre fare un confronto tra diverse fonti. Nei suoi studi, quindi, Ammon confrontava diverse edizioni del Duden con l’Österreichisches Wörterbuch (il dizionario utilizzato ufficialmente in Austria, Alto Adige e Romania) e Meyer (2006), un dizionario che riporta esclusivamente gli elvetismi.

Chiara, ma così è impossibile definire con certezza i teutonismi!! I dizionari non sono perfetti. E rispecchiano le opinioni di un determinato linguista! E quindi, non mi puoi dire che una parola è un teutonismo solo perché due o tre dizionari la considerano tale! Non è serio!!

 

Ebbene. Sono perfettamente d’accordo con te che non basta prendere in considerazione i dizionari per definire in modo serio i teutonismi. E questo lo sapeva anche Ammon. Solo che – al contrario di quando io ho scritto la mia tesi di laurea – nel 1995 Ammon si è scontrato con dei limiti tecnologici.

A quell’epoca, infatti, i computer erano solamente all’inizio della loro diffusione di massa. E internet era ancora troppo lento e costoso per essere accessibile da tutti.

Per questo motivo, quindi, nel 1995 Ammon si è dovuto limitare a consultare i vari dizionari in formato cartaceo. Ma l’approccio è cambiato nel 2004, l’anno in cui è uscito il Variantenwörterbuch des Deutschen presso la casa editrice De Gruyter.

A partire da quella data, infatti, Ammon non utilizza più solamente dizionari cartacei, ma si affida anche alle ricerche su Google e in generale su internet. In tal modo, quindi, tutto diventava più oggettivo.

Ah, ok. Ma… allora quali parole possono essere definite teutonismi?

In base alle mie ricerche, teutonismi dovrebbero essere parole come le seguenti:

Abendbrot (‘cena’)

Apfelsine (‘arancia’)

Berliner (‘krapfen’)

Bundestag (‘parlamento federale’)

Campen (‘fare campeggio’)

Dröge (‘secco [es. una torta], noioso [una persona]’)

Eierkuchen (‘cibo tipico tedesco simile all’omelette’)

Forke (‘forcone‘)

Sich högen (‘rallegrarsi’)

Junge (‘ragazzo‘)

Krug (‘boccale‘)

Klönen (‘chiaccherare’)

Lacken (‘lenzuola’)

Landesminister (‘ministro di uno dei Länder tedeschi’)

Möhre (‘carota’)

Marone (‘castagna’)

Mausen (‘rubare’)

Negerkuß (‘biscotto al cioccolato’)

Pfund (‘unità di misura pari a 500g’)

Plätzchen (‘biscotti natalizi’)

Rosenkohl (‘cavoletti di Bruxelles’)

Rührei (‘piatto a base di uova sbattute e bacon’)

Schlachter (‘macellaio’)

Sonnabend (‘sabato’)

Torwart (‘nel calcio: portiere’)

Tüte (‘borsa, sacchetto’)

Ul (‘gufo’)

Ziegenpeter (‘orecchioni’)

 

 

E tu? Conosci altre parole simili?

 

Ci vediamo nei commenti.

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109 commenti su ““Ich bin ein Berliner” La lingua tedesca in Germania e i teutonismi: guida per principianti”

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Il gruppo “Vita in Germania e lingua tedesca | Chiara Scanavino” è il gruppo privato di Facebook per gli italiani che vogliono imparare il tedesco e/o trasferirsi in Germania.

Qui troverai:

  • confronto con altri italiani che imparano il tedesco o si sono trasferiti in Germania
  • esercizi di grammatica, vocabolario e ascolto per i livelli A1, A2 e B1 del Quadro Comune Europeo di Riferimento per le Lingue (QCER) ogni 2-3 giorni
  • articoli su alcuni aspetti della vita quotidiana in Germania e della lingua tedesca.
 

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